As a critical raw material in cutting-edge polyimide synthesis, the fluorinated dianhydride 6FDA* plays a small but important role in the military aerospace industry. While current supply chains link 6FDA to traditional and emerging Asian producers, there is also understandable pressure to ensure that U.S. military procurement options remain as domestic as possible. This has become increasingly important given the logistical challenges and product shortages of the current climate. The recent 6FDA product launch from [...]
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Many products fall under the umbrella of adhesives but there are crucial differences among them. High-temperature (HT) adhesives are extremely durable and complex. They’re the go-to adhesives for service environments over 100℃, while quick-drying glues that you find on store shelves only operate from ambient temperature (20-30℃) to around 50℃. These heat-withstanding properties make high-temperature adhesives an ideal solution for technology, transportation, energy, and aerospace applications. Capable of performing under temperatures as high as 300℃, [...]
Modern technology demands specialized materials that function in extreme environments. Even as performance requirements increase, there is pressure to achieve results at the best possible price point. But balancing processing/property requirements such as curing temperature, curing cycle, heat resistance and toughness is no easy task. Specialized, multifunctional epoxy resins offer one path. But what if you can achieve the results you seek at a lower cost by using traditional DGEBA epoxy resins? With a history [...]
Pyromellitic Dianhydride (PMDA) is ideally-suited as a low-cost thermal curative for epoxy resins and as a co-monomer for polyimide synthesis. It was originally synthesized by a handful of Japanese and Western manufacturers including Daicel, DuPont, Du-Pont Toray, Jayhawk, Lonza, and Mitsubishi Gas Chemical. However, Pyromellitic Dianhydride has undergone a major shift in the manufacturing base and market dynamics over the past 5 years. China is now the major player, but volatility in raw material prices [...]
BTDA (3,3’, 4,4’-Benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride) is a dianhydride that has been produced since the early 1970s. It has grown into a flagship product with a proven performance edge in the fields of epoxy and polyimide chemistry. BTDA is a thermal curative that can improve temperature stability, dimensional stability, and dielectric properties of epoxy resins, particularly those based on DGEBA (Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A). It can improve glass transmission temperatures (Tg) and impart superior chemical, [...]
Crosslinking refers to the interconnecting or bridging of two chemical compounds, and a crosslinker is the molecule that is used to make this interconnection. Crosslinkers can be used for all types of polymeric materials, with the identification of the crosslinker being dependent on the application requirements. Polymer crosslinking is accomplished via a wide variety of chemical reactions under an equally wide array of conditions. Catalysts can also be used in this process to accelerate the [...]
A syntactic foam is a composite material that is made by filling a polymer, ceramic, or metal with pre-formed hollow glass or ceramic spheres called micro balloons. The term ‘syntactic’ refers to the ordered arrangement of the spheres, and the term ‘foam’ refers to the closed cellular structure. Syntactic Foam Properties The hollow spheres within syntactic foam provide most of the materials beneficial properties. They have high specific strength, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, [...]
An epoxy is a thermosetting polymer that possesses unique mechanical and resistance properties. The term epoxy can be used for the cured end product or any of the basic components within epoxy resins. An epoxy resin is a class of thermoset polymer made from a monomer that contains at least two epoxide groups. Epoxy resins can be homopolymerized or cross-linked into a three dimensional network using curatives. A broad assortment of curatives are available for [...]
A polymer is defined as a large network of molecules that consist of many repeat units. A polyimide is a specific type of polymer, consisting of imide monomers. Polyimides are highly desirable for their heat resistance, mechanical strength, and insulative properties. What is an Imide? To obtain a good understanding of what a polyimide is, first we have to understand the chemistry within it. An imide is a functional group consisting of two acyl groups [...]